Located in the centre of the country, where all the roads connecting the Romanian historical territories have always crossed, Brașov City has been and shall remain a bridge of connection and circulation of the material and spiritual values, as well as an area of symbiosis between the Romanian culture and the culture of the co-inhabiting nationalities. Due to its favourable geographic position, its natural and cultural values, as well as its economic development, the old Saxon burg, or the “Crown City”, exerts a large capacity of attraction for both the Romanian and the foreign tourists.
The historical centre of Brasov City
▶ GEOGRAPHIC POSITION
Located in the centre of the country, Brașov County occupies the largest area of the Depressions of Brașov and Făgăraș, the relief reaching altitudes that range between 400 and 2544 m. The sub-Carpathian hilly areas and the mountainous areas occupy about half of the territory of the county, the rest of it being represented by Bârsa Depression, Făgăraş Depression and Hârtibaci Plateau.
Situated at 625m of altitude, Braşov City, the county seat, is located in Bârsa Depression, in the Carpathian arc, at the foot of Piatra Mare and Postăvarul Massifs. It is guarded on three sides by the Tampa Hill, Warthe Hill and Dealul Cetăţii (the Citadel Hill).
Braşov County has a temperate-continental climate that is characterized by the transition from the temperate oceanic climate to the temperate continental one: rather humid and relatively cold in the mountains, with low precipitation and slightly low temperatures in the depression areas.
The annual average temperature of the air reaches 6-7 °C. The number of summer days is approximately 50 days per year. The air humidity reaches annual average values of 75%. The yearly amount of rain in the city is 124.8% cubic meters, and the annual average duration of snow cover is of 70.8 days.
▷ About Brașov City
Brașov City was first attested in documents in 1235 as the most important city in Transylvania during the Middle Ages and an economic fortress between the 14th and 16th centuries.
• Stone Age (Neolithic) – the first traces of habitation in the area
• Bronze Age – attested archeologically;
• 1235 – the first documentary attestation in „Catalogus Ninivensis” under the name ‘Corona’; in the course of time Braşov was also mentioned in documents under other names, such as Barasu (1252), Brasu (1271), Braso (1288), Kronstadt and Brasso;
• 1377 – Braşov was confirmed as an administrative centre and in 1379 it became the ecclesiastical centre of Ţara Bârsei (Bârsa Land), being initially mentioned under the names of Barasu, Burcia, Brasso;
• 1383 – The construction of Saint Mary’s Church commenced and it was completed in 1477. The construction works on the fortifications surrounding the city began during the last quarter of the 14th century and they were completed in 1646.
• 1388 – The first mention of the school next to Saint Mary’s Church in Brașov City;
Panorama - The historical centre of Brasov City
• 1395 – The anti-Ottoman alliance was concluded between Sigismund of Luxembourg, the King of Hungary, and Mircea cel Bătrân, the ruler of Wallachia;
• 1399 – The first documentary mention of the Romanian Orthodox church in the district of Șcheii Brașovului, i.e. Saint Nicholas Church;
• 1400 – The first Ottoman invasion of Bârsa Land, followed by the one in 1421 when Brașov City was partially destroyed and the Magistrate was placed under custody;
• 1420 – An agreement was signed between the Assembly of Bârsa Land and the Furriers’ Guild for the construction of the Council House;
• 1475 – The first lists of taxes was kept in Brașov City that mentioned the four quarters of the city;
• 1480 -1506 – the mention of Gheorghe Grămăticul attests the Romanian didactic activity in Brașov City;
• 1486 – Brașov City and Bârsa Land are included in the Saxon University – Universitas Saxonum;
• 1521 – The letter of Neacșu of Câmpulung addressed to the Mayor (judex civitatis) of Brașov City is the first document in Romanian language that has been kept;
• 1541 – The Transylvanian Principality was proclaimed after the fall of the Hungarian Kingdom under the Ottomans;
• 1542 – Lutheranism was adopted by the Saxon and Hungarian population in Brașov City;
Butchers' Tower & The Black Church
• 1539 – The beginning of the typographical activity of the Humanist Johannes Honterus, who in 1541 organised the German gymnasium on the very spot where Saint Catherine's Monastery had stood and in 1547 founded the school library that had the largest collection of books in Transylvania;
• 1556 -1583 – The activity of Diaconul Coresi, the greatest Romanian typographer in the 16th century;
• 1558 – The first documented mention of the Hungarian school in Brașov City;
• 1600 – Mihai Viteazul (Michael the Brave) visited Brașov City and summoned the Diet of Transylvania;
• 1612 – The Mayor, Michael Weiss led the battle against Prince Gabriel Báthori;
The White Tower
• 1646 – the fortification system was finalised; it included the compound wall, which was strengthened by double or triple walls in the exposed areas and by 28 square towers, 8 bastions and four gates;
• 1686 – Transylvania became part of the Habsburg Empire. In 1688 the citizens of Brașov City rose against the new leadership of the city and in 1689 a fire caused the biggest urban disaster in the history of the city;
• 1736 – Municipal works were conducted by Austrians: a road was built towards Wallachia through the Timiş pass;
• 1737 – The Council Square was paved with stone;
• 1776-1782 – The most representative Baroque edifice was built, i.e. Saints Peter and Paul Roman Catholic Church;
• The end of the 17th century and the first half of the 18th century – the age of flourishing of the Romanian trade in Brașov City;
• 1781 – Emperor Joseph II issued the Edict of concivility and the Patent of Toleration by means of which the Romanians were granted equal rights to those of other nations;
• 1784-1787 – The Holy Trinity Greek Orthodox Church was built. It was the first religious building in the fortified city of Brașov;
• 1804 – Public lighting (oil lamps) was installed in the city;
• 1823 – The first factory was built in Brașov City: “Wilhelm Scherg&Comp” textile factory;
• 1835 – The Cultural Political Society “Casina Romana” was set-up;
• 1838 – “Gazeta de Transilvania” (the Transylvanian Gazette) and “Foaie pentru minte, inimă şi literatură” (Page for the mind, heart and literature) started to be published and were edited by George Bariţiu;
• 1851 – The first gymnasium in Brașov City was set up, i.e. “Andrei Șaguna” National College;
• 1854 – The telegraph was introduced;
• 1864 – The Air Gas Plant was built;
• 1873 – Brașov Railway Station was inaugurated together with the first railway line between Brașov and Sighișoara;
• 1882 – The national premiere of the “Crai Nou” operetta written by Ciprian Porumbescu took place;
• 1889 – The first telephone posts in Brașov City;
The Weaver's Bastion
• 1892 – The first telephone posts became operational in Brașov City;
• 1897-1898 – The Palace of Finance was built. It currently hosts Brașov Municipality;
• 1916 – The Romanian Army entered Brașov City and Dr. Gheorghe Baiulescu became the first Romanian mayor of the city. On December 1, 1918 Transylvania united with Romania.
• December 7, 1918 – the German Mayor, Dr. Ernst Karl Schnell, together with the representatives of all the nationalities saluted the entrance of the Romanian army in Braşov City;
• November 15, 1987 – the uprise of the labourers working at the factories in Braşov City represented the first overt protest against the communist system and its leader;
• December 21, 1989 – Braşov City joined the revolution that had started in Timișoara City, which led to overthrow of the communist regime in Romania;
• February 9, 1992 – Adrian Moruzi became the first mayor of Braşov City elected democratically;
• February 17-22, 2013 – The European Youth Olympic Winter Festival was organised in Braşov and it represented the first international Olympic event organised in Romania.